In a blow to Theresa May, the Brexit deal was voted down by 230 votes on Tuesday.
MPs voted by 432 votes to 202 to reject the deal, which has led to the Labour party launching a vote of no confidence against the government.
The vote will take place on Wednesday night and could trigger a general election.
Theresa May said after the vote: “The house has spoken and the government will listen. It is clear that the house does not support this deal, but tonight’s vote tells us nothing about what it does support.”
If she gets through Wednesday’s vote of no confidence, she plans to meet with senior parliamentarians from all parties to “identify what would be required to secure the backing of the house”.
The European Commission President, Jean-Claude Juncker, said in a statement that the UK government needed to “clarify its Brexit intentions as soon as possible.”
“I take note with regret the outcome of the vote in the House of Commons this evening. On the EU side, the process of ratification of the withdrawal agreement continues,” he said.
“The risk of a disorderly withdrawal of the United Kingdom has increased with this evening’s vote. While we do not want this to happen, the European Commission will continue its contingency work to help ensure the EU is fully prepared,” he added.
Future options for Brexit following the vote are a renegotiation of the deal, a general election, a second referendum, an article 50 extension or no Brexit at all.
Labour MPs are campaigning for a second referendum, saying it is the “the only logical option” available.
“We must try and remove this government from office as soon as possible. But the removal of the government and pushing for a general election may prove impossible,” said a statement released on Wednesday.